Transit: for whom, where and when
In a context where daily car use is a spontaneous and habitual choice for a wide majority of the population, the quality of the alternatives to individual motorized vehicles is a major factor in encouraging modal shift. The ease of access to public transport can influence the mode choice decision process. However, the diversity of activity-travel patterns questions the definition of a unique and homogeneous accessibility and level-of-service to all travelers.
The aim of this paper is to identify, with the help of standard data (micro-census and open data), for whom, when and where the transit supply is adequate or not. The approach is based on a twofold methodology.
First, we aim to identify differentiated typical activity-travel patterns among the population. Second, to decompose them in transit supply in time and space. Combined, these two elements synthesize a spatially- and temporally-based demand-supply gap index. The results show for which territories, time slots and population groups the supply is defective or excessive with respect to the demand. Generally speaking, the supply is particularly well dimensioned for the dominant groups, such as commuters, including long-distance travelers, who are mainly men. The imbalances in supply over time and space reveal a differentiated accessibility but also significant socio-spatial inequalities.